While much of the evidence presented here has focused on the consequences of changes in species diversity on. Adaptive capacity in socioecological systems refers to the ability of humans to deal with change in their environment by observation, learning and altering their interactions. Ecosystems are also subject to slowly changing longterm stresses, such as nutrient enrichment and changes in sediment supply. High diversity stabilizes the thermal resilience of. It is easier to lose diversity, productivity and even more resilience from ecosystems with decreased resilience. Request pdf on nov 1, 2003, thomas elmqvist and others published response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Based on vegetation surveys from 2007, we tested ecosystem changes in structure, composition, and resilience i.
Aug 10, 2015 the resilience of ecosystems depends on the diversity of species and their specific responses to environmental variation. Forests free fulltext tropical dry forest diversity. Apr 23, 2015 the resilience of an ecosystem can be defined as its capacity to absorb disturbances while maintaining structure and function holling 1973. Diversity functional groups present in a living system diversity of functional groups enhances system performance response diversity response types present in functional groups image. In ecology, resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to respond to a perturbation or. This is an open access article, free of all, and may be freely reproduced. It has proved challenging to predict ecosystem resilience because its loss may only be apparent when thresholds are reached and the system moves to an alternate state bellwood et al. Here we show that the diversity of climatic responses across species. The resilience of ecosystems depends on the diversity of species and their specific responses to environmental variation. However, this is not to say that such measures are mutually exclusive. They evaluated response diversity, a measure of responses to environmental change among different.
This program is led by the international water management institute iwmi, a member. Biological diversity appears to enhance the resilience of desirable ecosystem states, which is required to secure the production of essential ecosystem services. Our results demonstrate that diversity in the hydraulic traits of trees mediates ecosystem resilience to drought and is likely to have an important role in future ecosystem atmosphere feedback. Protecting and enhancing the resilience of ecosystems the u. In particular, response diversity diversity of species that respond differently to disturbance within functional groups fg is suggested to be. Biodiversity, ecosystem services and governance stockholm. Driving forces of biodiversity and ecosystem service change. Applying resilience thinking stockholm resilience centre. High response diversity within functional groups thus contributes to ecosystem resilience by increasing the capacity of the group to maintain its function in the face of change, thus providing ecological insurance 30, 41, such as coraldominated states. Response diversity and resilience resilience has been used in several different ways, including as an evocative metaphor in discourse on sustainability and as a quantity that is potentially measurable in a specific ses carpenter et al. The resilience of ecosystems to environmental change recce. Protecting and enhancing the resilience of ecosystems u. More kinds of species in a particular ecosystem, the more likely it is to overcome threats such as natural disasters and climate change. With its focus on the temporal behaviour of ecosystems, palaeoecology.
Holling 1973 defined ecosystem resilience as the amount of disturbance a system can absorb and yet remain within the same state or domain of. However, metrics of resilience to environmental change are lacking. Reduced response diversity does not negatively impact. The resilience of the haplochromine cichlid fisheries appears to be determined by the genetic diversity, functional and response diversity, and ecosystem diversity beta diversity across the range of habitats in lake victoria. This variation in response within and between individual species determines both the shortterm provision and the longterm resilience of ecosystem functions. In addition to the role species play in maintaining resilience, connectivity. Response diversity determines the resilience of ecosystems.
In the international free encyclopedia wikipedia, for instance, the anonymous. This doesnt mean that i disagree with his pointofview, just that mine differs. Response diversity and resilience in socialecological systems. The evidence reveals that the likelihood of regime shifts may increase when humans reduce resilience by such actions as removing response diversity, removing whole functional groups of. Biodiversity, ecosystems and ecosystem services 7 biodiversity at a suitable scale, e. The resilience of ecosystem functions to environmental change is likely to be. Factors that contribute to ecological resilience vary by ecosystem, but some studies suggest that biological diversity and in particular functional redundancy positively influences ecosystem resilience allen et al. Restoration practices now are confronted by climate change, which has the potential to influence longterm restoration outcomes. Ecological resilience refers to the ability of an ecosystem to maintain key functions and processes in the face of stresses or pressures, by resisting and then adapting to change. Biodiversity and ecosystem stability learn science at.
Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience thomas elmqvist, stockholm university nov. We identified 45 attributes explicitly related to climate change and classified them as. The resilience of the haplochromine cichlid fisheries appears to be determined by the genetic diversity, functional and response diversity, and ecosystem diversity beta diversity. Response diversity, sampling and insurance effects are said to increase the resilience and resistance of an. The diversity of responses to environmental change among species contributing to the same ecosystem function, which we call response diversity, is critical to resilience. Redundancy and response diversity of functional groups. Sep, 2012 low microbiota diversity also correlates with ibd 51 and recurrent cdad 49 with unknown effects on microbiota resilience. An indicator framework for assessing agroecosystem resilience. Pdf regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in. Chapter 2 biodiversity, ecosystems and ecosystem services. Faced with novel disturbances, forests may be able to sustain existing ecosystem services and biodiversity by exhibiting resilience, or. Concepts and attributes from the resilience literature can help improve restoration and monitoring.
Resilience is increasingly being considered as a new paradigm of forest management among scientists, practitioners, and policymakers. Reduced response diversity does not negatively impact wheat. Biodiversity, ecosystem thresholds, resilience and forest degradation. However, the resilience and stability of surviving biological communities remain poorly quantified.
Diversity, stability and resilience of the human gut microbiota. Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience esa journals. The resilience and resistance of an ecosystem to a collapse. Article information, pdf download for the application of resilience concepts in.
To support this alarming claim, the authors report yield variance data indicating increasingly homogeneous responses to climatic fluctuations in modern wheat cultivars. Pdf response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience. Aug 26, 2011 it is becoming more apparent that species richness alone many not be sufficient to fully understand ecosystem resilience but that functional diversity diversity of species having similar effects on an ecosystem process may be more relevant. Ecosystem functioning and patterns of species loss. Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience elmqvist. Resilience questions the free market model within which global markets. Here we present examples of response diversity from both terrestrial. Specifically, discontinuity approaches have significant potential to measure and thus understand the resilience of ecosystems, to objectively identify critical scales of space and time in ecological systems at which human impact might be most severe, to provide warning indicators of regime change, to help. Diversity, adaptability and ecosystem resilience rozenn keribin1, dr andrew friend1, dr drew purves2 1 department of geography, university of cambridge 2 microsoft research, cambridge summary. Resilient ecosystems sustain biological diversity and human livelihoods in times of severe and wideranging change, and the concepts of resiliencebased ecosystem stewardship 5 helps people to enhance the resilience of the ecosystems within which they live, and upon which their livelihoods and wellbeing depend. Resilience thinking considers those properties of human and natural systems complex adaptive socialecological systems that enhance their resilience. An agroecosystem that contains a high degree of response diversity will be more resilient against various types and degrees of shocks.
Box 4 because it impacts the functional and response diversity of a system, as. Biodiversity and resilience of ecosystem functions. Patrick reinmoeller and nicole van baardwijk july 15, 2005 reading time. I have a longrunning interest in the topic of disorder. These include response diversity, describing the variation of responses to environmental change among species of a particular community. Response diversity may also be a key determinant of ecosystem resilience in the face of anthropogenic pressures and environmental uncertainty. From a 10y dataset comprising 2,880 bird censuses across a.
Maintaining crucial ecosystem processes and services requires resilience to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Resilience loss can feed back on itself, because disturbance has a greater effect on ecosystems that have already lost resilience. Ecosystem resilience an overview sciencedirect topics. The range, prevalence, and spatial and temporal distributions of different responses may be crucial to the resilience or the transformation of a socialecological system, and thus have a bearing on human vulnerability and wellbeing in the face of environmental, socioeconomic, and political change. Closely linked to resilience is adaptive capacity, which is the property of an ecosystem that describes change in stability landscapes and resilience. Quantifying resilience of multiple ecosystem services and. Ecological restoration is widely practiced as a means of rehabilitating ecosystems and habitats that have been degraded or impaired through human use or other causes. Mar 01, 2010 as a response, i intentionally named this post dispersion, diversity, and resilience. Ecosystem services and resilience esr is a crosscutting core theme within wle that focuses on the role of ecosystem service based approaches in building community resilience and helping wle achieve its development outcomes. The link between diversity and resilience new research shows that the most resilient companies are those that continually orchestrate a dynamic balance of four innovation strategies. The observation is that not everyone responds to changing circumstances in the same way.
The same principle holds true for species diversity. Biodiversity, ecosystem services and resilience governance for a future. At present, technology is unable to replicate most of these services, but ecosystem services are free if the diversity of an ecosystem is maintained. Another aspect of diversity that may be particularly important for promoting resilience is functional response diversity, defined as the degree to which species in a community that contribute to the same ecosystem function. The diversity of responses to environmental change among species. For example, various elements such as the water cycle, fertility, biodiversity. Furthermore, it is often argued that for coexistence to be possible, even functionally redundant species need to differ in some aspects, including in their susceptibility to threats or to changes to their system response diversity. Finally, ecosystem diversity measures number a variety of different ecosystems in a region. An ecosystem can decay and become unsustainable if resilience is lost. Response diversity builds resilience in ecosystems society. Conclusion diversity is a key element of sustainability due to its effect on productivity, resilience, and preserving quality of life. The diversitystability hypothesis suggests that diversity provides a general insurance policy that minimizes the chance of large ecosystem changes in. Response diversity is particularly important for ecosystem renewal and reorganization following change. Decline in climate resilience of european wheat december 24.1522 1234 1515 827 665 707 1515 794 18 573 70 1089 1025 861 746 1188 869 641 1202 1419 1199 275 777 643 737 1311 1468 1476 1321 805 412 170 885 88 41 162 282 1099 1109 933 703