Macarthur encouraged religion in postwar japan the. State and religion in imperial japan, 19121945 japanese scholars have long been intrigued by the rise of the masses in japan between the two world wars. The allied occupation of japan 19451952 and japanese. Buddhism is the religion in japan with most adherents, with 69. Religion does not play a big role in the everyday life of most japanese people today. Tightly edited, it synthesizes a heavy mass of information and uses. During world war ii, state shinto was the only legal religion, and christians and radical buddhists were persecuted, as well as sect shintoists. A japanese religion dating from the early 8th century and incorporating the worship of ancestors and nature spirits and a belief in sacred power kami in both animate and inanimate things.
And what is revealed in tom goodrichs latest book, summer, 1945germany, japan and the harvest of hate, is a story so savage and sadistic as to numb the senses. The book takes a long view that extends back just prior to. As franziska seraphim war memory and social politics in japan, 19452005, harvard university asia center, 2006 and others have shown, the shrines peculiar place in japanese memory owes as much to postwar history and developments as it does to its wartime role. Religious freedom is a founding tenet of the united states, and it has frequently been used to justify policies towards other nations. While takenaka does not omit this history, she focuses instead on the politics. Japan has the second largest buddhist population in the world, after china, with approximately 90 million buddhists in modern times, japans popular schools of buddhism are pure land buddhism, nichiren buddhism, shingon buddhism and zen. In japanese, they are called shinshukyo or shinko shukyo. In that respect, the invention of religion in japan can help scholars of religions in japan and elsewhere continue to refine and shape our understanding of religion in modernity. Most large christian denominations, including roman catholicism, protestantism, and orthodox christianity, are represented in japan today. During this time, local buddhist organizations turned to philanthropy as a powerful means of. This standard text explores religion in japan as a complex tapestry of different religious strands, reflecting both the unity and diversity of japanese culture, a theme earhart pioneered in the first edition 1969 of this enduring, classic booka theme he has devoted subsequent decades to refining through cuttingedge scholarship and keen observation of the evolving religious scene. Distinguished scholar of japanese religions and culture helen hardacre offers the.
In addition, mountain worship, which grew out of nature worship combined with shinto and. When the americans occupied japan in 1945, the shrines were taken away from the government, and state shinto was abolished. The section of the book entitled confusion of political and educational. Of the 95 jesuits who worked in japan up to 1600, 57 were portuguese, 20 were spaniards and 18 italian. Religion was at the forefront in this period of intense competition, not just between armies but also among different models of legal, commercial, social and spiritual development, each of. Shinto, shinto, also kaminomichi, is the indigenous religion of japan and of most of the people of japan. Bringing together the work of leading scholars of religion in imperial japan and colonial korea, this collection addresses the complex ways in which religion served as a site of contestation and negotiation among different groups, including the korean choson court, the japanese colonial government, representatives of different religions, and korean and japanese societies. Japanese new religions are new religious movements established in japan. Such was the case in 1945 when americans occupied japan following world war ii. The allied occupation of japan 19451952 and japanese religions by william p.
Starting from the premise that gender is not a biological given, but is socially constructed and culturally transmitted, the authors describe the forces of. Through a series of case studies of religion in action at crowded temples and festivals, in. In thirteen wideranging essays, scholars and students of asian and womens studies will find a vivid exploration of how female roles and feminine identity have evolved over 350 years, from the tokugawa era to the end of world war ii. Woodard, the allied occupation of japan 19451952 and japanese religions leiden. Not one of the religions is dominant, and each is affected by the others. Recent estimates suggest that up to 80 percent of the one and a half million ethnic koreans in the united states are affiliated with christianity.
This text examines the major areas in which the japanese participate in religious events, the role of religion in the social system and the underlying views within the japanese religious world. Thus, it is typical for one person or family to believe. Book after book describes the struggle of the few hundred thousand workers and tenant farmers who formed unions. As a result, sociologists of japanese religion have to face the challenge of deciding whether. Clearly, the author did a vast amount of new research for this new book. Curiously enough, historians have written little about what was. State and religion in imperial japan, 19121945 jstor. Murakmi, utilizing typological concept of religious studies, argues that state shinto was the religiouspolitical institution inheriting the old shinto tradition of japans ethnic religion which were revived by meiji restoration in the 1860s and dominated the religious system of modern japan over a period of about 80 years until 1945. Empire and the meaning of religion in northeast asia by. These images that reveal iconic red shinto gates, or torii, weathered buddha statues, and ceremonial processions at picturesque temples and shrines, are instantly recognizable as fundamental embodiments of japanese religion. Read while you wait get immediate ebook access when you order a print book. This book examines the place of religion in the development of manchuria from the late nineteenth century to the collapse of the japanese empire in 1945. The transformation of japan in the years between 1931 and 1945 into an expansionist and potentially hegemonic power that threatened the stability of the international order in east asia is a topic that is central to any understanding of the regions history in the twentieth century. In the fall of 1945after the announcement of japans surrender to the allied forces but prior to the formal takeover of taiwansome two or three hundred incidents of assault and theft in taiwan were reported by the colonial police bureau.
Book says macarthur flooded japan with religion houston. This tendency shifted during the years of occupation and war from the japanese invasion of manchuria in 1931 to the defeat of japan in 1945 as the state sought to build an ideological idea of the kingly way wangdao based on confucian ideas. Vernacular religionsbeliefs in japan before christianity was introduced before the introduction of christianity to japan, shinto, the origin of which traces back to times before christ, existed and buddhism was introduced to japan in the 6 th century via korean peninsula and spread across the nation. Here is a clip from the jacket blurb, courtesy of amazon. Jason ananda josephson, the invention of religion in japan. People belonging to religious organizations had to obey the law. Journal for the scientific study of religion this book is an advance in the literature. Recreating japanese women, 16001945 by gail lee bernstein. State shinto was once a national cult that all citizens belonged to, but today most attending shinto shrines are buddhists, and there are more christians 3. The ashlar and the cross, japanese investigative journalist eiichiro tokumoto documents. Government control of religions was abolished, and the state was to offer no favor to any religion over other religions.
The written historical records of the kojiki and nihon shoki first. What role did religion play in the empire of japan during. The average person typically follows the religious rituals at ceremonies like birth, weddings and funerals, may visit a shrine or temple on new year and participates at local festivals matsuri, most of which have a. Dont overlook the enthusiastic support of some members of the buddhist clergy. Bringing together the work of leading scholars of religion in imperial japan and. In 1945, with her fleet destroyed and her armies beaten, the only thing that stood between japan and an allied invasion was the numerous coastal defence positions that surrounded the islands. What role does religion play in contemporary japanese society and in the lives of japanese people today. This is the question posed by robert conroy in his book 1945.
Japanese scholars have long been intrigued by the rise of the masses in. Empire and the meaning of religion in manchuria, 19001945. Much has been written on the allied occupation of japan and. Since the mid1990s, the majority of japanese people are of the shinto or buddhist faith. Less than 1 percent of the population claims christian belief or affiliation. There was a complete collapse of faith in japan in 1945 in our invincible military, in the emperor, in the religion that had become known as state shinto, tokumoto writes.
Allied occupation of japan 19451952 and japanese religions. The book begins with a preface and introduction which paint the history of japanese religion in broad strokes. State and religion in imperial japan, 1912 1945 japanese scholars have long been intrigued by the rise of the masses in japan between the two world wars. The allied occupation of japan, 19451952, and japanese religions. Book says macarthur flooded japan with postwar religion. Belief and practice in imperial japan and colonial korea emily. George williams classifies shinto as an actioncentered religion. What if after the united states dropped atomic bombs on hiroshima and nagasaki, the japanese did not surrender. While horiis criticism of the term religion ties most of the book. The average person typically follows the religious rituals at ceremonies like birth, weddings and funerals, may visit a shrine or temple on new year and participates at local festivals matsuri, most of which have a religious background.
The cover photo are zen monks, in robes, marching with rifles. A chapter devoted to the development of religion to the nara period began c. However, many people were still adherents of both state shinto and buddhism. The indigenous religion of japan, shinto, coexists with various sects of buddhism, christianity, and some ancient shamanistic practices, as well as a number of new religions shinko shukyo that have emerged since the 19th century.
Though the japanese constitution had guaranteed freedom of religion since 1889, the united states declared that protection faulty, and when the occupation ended in 1952, they. The allied occupation of japan 19451952 and japanese religions william p. Summary of religion in japan hidden christian sites in. Sage reference state shinto and religion in postwar japan. Historiography and the legacies of japanese colonialism 19101945. State shinto and the religious structure of modern japan. Japans new postwar constitution of 1947 guaranteed freedom of religion to all. Douglas macarthur sought to fill the countrys spiritual vacuum with religious and quasireligious beliefs, from christianity to freemasonry, as an antidote to communism. While some of the events described in summer, 1945 will be familiar to readers of hellstorm, many will not. Portuguese shipping arrived in japan in 1543, and catholic missionary activities in japan began in earnest around 1549, performed in the main by portuguesesponsored jesuits until spanishsponsored franciscans and dominicans gained access to japan.
When one searches japanese religion in a search engine, the resulting images reveal the perceptions of what religion in japan means. This standard text explores religion in japan as a complex tapestry of different religious strands, reflecting both the unity and diversity of japanese culture, a theme earhart pioneered in the first edition 1969 of this enduring, classic book a theme he has devoted subsequent decades to refining through cuttingedge scholarship and keen observation of the evolving religious scene. Japanese scholars classify all religious organizations founded since the middle of the 19th century as new religions. This is the first book to take a detailed look at the japanese home island fortifications that were constructed during 194145. This standard text explores religion in japan as a complex tapestry of different religious strands, reflecting both the unity and diversity of japanese culture, a theme earhart pioneered in the first edition 1969 of this enduring, classic book a theme he has devoted subsequent decades to refining through cuttingedge scholarship and keen observation of the evolving. Association of shinto shrines established 1945 c increasing population shifts to cities. What if a coalition of followers of samurai beliefs kidnapped emperor hirohito and took control of japans military vowing to fight to the last man. Christianity in japan is among the nations minority religions. Belief and practice in imperial japan and colonial korea. The allied occupation of japan 19451952 and japanese religions. New religions that are sects of or schisms, from buddhism and shintoism have grown since 1945. Until japans defeat in 1945 state shinto enjoyed high status as the public. A number of documents tokumoto used for research were declassified only recently, including accounts of a 1946 meeting between macarthur and two u. Imperial japan and the world, 19311945 1st edition.733 332 1073 586 748 1485 990 505 1527 1238 1498 68 256 1027 453 60 238 988 513 147 633 678 1118 1338 761 75 834 1127 871 69 448 1168 989 1370 1189 64 1439 1121 116 1323 931 1152 561